Knowledge, Attitude, and Behaviour with Regard to Medication Errors in Intravenous Therapy: A Cross-Cultural Pilot Study

Knowledge, Attitude, and Behaviour with Regard to Medication Errors in Intravenous Therapy: A Cross-Cultural Pilot Study


Background: Literature on the prevention of medication errors is growing, highlighting that knowledge, attitude and behavior with regard to medication errors are strategic to planning of educational activities and evaluating their impact on professional practice. In this context, the present pilot study aims to translate and validate nursing professionals’ knowledge, attitudes and behavior (KAB theory) concerning medication administration errors in ICU from English into Persian. Furthermore, two main objectives of the project were: performing a pilot study among Iranian nurses using the translated questionnaire and carrying out a cultural measurement of the KAB theory concerning medication administration errors in an ICU questionnaire across two groups of Italian and Iranian populations. Methods: A cross-cultural adaptation of an instrument, according to the Checklist for reporting of survey studies (CROSS), was performed. The convenience sample was made up of 529 Iranian and Italian registered nurses working in ICU. An exploratory factor analysis was performed and reliability was assessed. A multi-group confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to test the measurement invariance. Ethical approval was obtained. Results: There was an excellent internal consistency for the 19-item scale. Results regarding factorial invariance showed that the nursing population from Italy and Iran used the same cognitive framework to conceptualize the prevention of medication errors. Conclusions: Findings from this preliminary translation and cross-cultural validation confirm that the questionnaire is a reliable and valid instrument within Persian healthcare settings. Moreover, these findings suggest that Italian and Persian nurses used an identical cognitive framework or mental model when thinking about medication errors prevention. The paper not only provides, for the first time, a validated instrument to evaluate the KAB theory in Iran, but it should promote other researchers in extending this kind of research, supporting those countries where attention to medical error is still increasing.


medication errors, cross cultural comparison, nursing, intensive care units


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